General Knowledge 2022 -Location and extent of India (bharat ke avasthiti aur vistar)
Location and extent of India
- India’s location is located north of the equator between 8º 4’ to 37º 6’ north latitude and 68º 7 to 97º 25 east longitude.
- The Indian subcontinent is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south.
- The area of India is 32,87,263 sq km. Is.
- India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area after Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil and Australia and the second largest country after China in terms of population.
- The length of India from north to south is about 3214 km and from east to west is about 2933 km.
- There is an extension of 30º longitude line to the middle of 68º 7 longitude line in the west of India and 97º 25’ longitude line in the east.
- There are total 360º longitude lines on the earth rotating from west to east. It takes 24 hours (1440 minutes) for the Earth to rotate 360º.
- The earth crosses 1º longitude in 4 minutes, so it takes the earth about 120 minutes to rotate from the western end of India (68º7′ east longitude) to the eastern end (97º25′ east longitude). There is a difference of 2 hours between Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat.
- In countries with more longitudinal extent in the world, the longitude line in the middle is taken as the standard time line. Therefore, the time that will be there is accepted as the standard time of the whole country.
- To solve this problem in India, the 82½º longitude line has been accepted as the Standard Meridian for determining the Standard Time (IST) of India. In this way, the time which will be on the 82½º meridian line will be considered as the time of the whole country.
- International Standard Time Line 0º longitude passes through a place called Greenwich in London.
- There is a time interval of 5 hours 30 minutes between 0º longitude to 82½º east longitude, since India is located in the eastern hemisphere, so Indian Standard Time (82½º East Longitude) is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich Time. That is, if it is 5:30 in the evening in India, then the time of day in London will be 12:00.
- The Indian Standard Time Line passes through 5 states of India – Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
- 23½º The northern latitude line or the Tropic of Cancer passes through almost the middle of India, due to which it divides the entire country into two zones – tropical in the south and sub-tropical in the north.
- The Tropic of Cancer between West Bengal and Tripura passes through Bangladesh. The maximum length of the Tropic of Cancer in India is in the state of Madhya Pradesh and the minimum length is in Rajasthan.
- Tropic of Cancer passes through eight states of the country, which are from west to east as follows- Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.
- The total length of India’s coastline is 6100 km, but adding the length of the mainland and islands to it, the total length becomes 6 km (about 7517 km). The total length of the land border of India is about 15,200 km.
- 9 states of India which include – Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa and 5 union territories – Puducherry, Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Nawab Diu’s borders are with the sea coastline.
- The southern part of the Indian peninsula is triangular, bounded by the Indian Ocean in the south, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. Apart from this, there are some other narrow creeks, creeks and channels around the Indian peninsula.
- The narrow sea located in the south of Gujarat is called the Gulf of Khambhat, the narrow sea located in the west of Gujarat is called the Gulf of Kutch and the narrow sea located between India and Sri Lanka is called the Gulf of Mannar.
- The narrow sea between two islands is called a channel. Channels located around India are named after latitude lines. For example, the 8º channel between Maldives and Minicoy lies north of it, the 9º channel between Minicoy and Lakshadweep and the 10 channel between Little Andaman and Car Nicobar.
- The state with the longest coast line of India is Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are the states with the second and third longest coastline respectively.
- The state with the shortest coastline of India is Goa.
- The southernmost point of the Indian peninsula is Kanyakumari, but the southernmost point of India is Indira Point located in Great Nicobar.
- The northernmost point of India is Indira Kaul (Jammu and Kashmir) and the westernmost point is Guhar Mota (Gujarat), while the easternmost point is Kibithu (Arunachal Pradesh).
- India’s land borders with 7 countries, China and Nepal in the north, Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east and Bhutan in the northeast.
- India has natural borders with Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar, except Pakistan and Bangladesh (as India’s borders with them are artificial or man-made).
Note: On October 31, 2019, a new Union Territory of Ladakh has been carved out of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, whose borders are with China, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Boundaries with India and neighboring countries
- Durand Line:- The Durand Line is currently the boundary line located between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Before independence, when the country was not partitioned, the British used to call the border line of India and Afghanistan as Durand Rekha.
- McMahon Line:- The boundary that forms with China and Arunachal Pradesh is called McMahon Line. It was determined by Henry McMahon in 1914 during the Simla Agreement.
Note: The line along the whole of India and China is not called McMahon Line.
Indian states touching the border of neighboring countries of India
- Pakistan – Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
- China – Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
- Myanmar – Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.
- Bangladesh – Mizoram, Tripura, Assam, Meghalaya and West Bengal
- Nepal – Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal
- Bhutan – Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh
States of India surrounded by neighboring countries of India-
- Sikkim is surrounded by Nepal, China and Bhutan.
- West Bengal – Nepal is surrounded by Bhutan and Bangladesh.
- Ladakh – China is surrounded by Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Note : The border of Afghanistan touches only Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan Occupied Kashmir), which now touches only the state of Ladakh in the new map released by the Government of India.
- At present there are 28 states and 9 union territories in India. Earlier there were 28 states and 7 union territories in India.
- On August 5, 2019, the special status of Jammu and Kashmir was abolished and made two separate Union Territories, in which Jammu and Kashmir was given the status of a Union Territory with the same Legislative Assembly as Delhi and a new Union Territory of Ladakh (Jammu and Jammu and Kashmir). separated from Kashmir). Both these Union Territories came into full force with effect from October 31, 2019. Thus there are total 28 states and 9 union territories in India.
- The 5 largest states in terms of area in the states of India are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh respectively. Before the formation of Telangana state, Andhra Pradesh was the fourth largest state in the country in terms of area.
- Goa is the smallest state in India in terms of area.
- Sikkim is the smallest state in India in terms of population.
- Lakshadweep is the smallest state in India in terms of area among the states/union territories.
- Uttar Pradesh is the state of India that borders the largest number of states. It forms the border with eight states and one union territory of India, which are as follows- Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar, and its border with the Union Territory of New Delhi.
- The largest district of India in terms of area is Kutch district of Gujarat and the smallest district is Mahe district of Pondicherry. There are about 6,41,000 villages in India.
Important facts related to Union Territories –
- Chandigarh is not only a union territory but also the capital of Punjab and Haryana.
- New Delhi is the national capital of India.
- Dadar Nagar is situated on the border of the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
- Pondicherry is located at a total of 4 places, which are spread over three states-
- Mahe – Kerala
- Pondicherry and Karaikal – Tamil Nadu
- Yanam – Andhra Pradesh
- In addition to the mainland of India, two islands, Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea are part of our country.
- 82½º Meridian line passes through a place called Naini in Prayagraj district of the state of Uttar Pradesh.
- The 0º (zero degree) longitude line passes through the city of Greenwich, London.
- Indian Standard Time – IST (82½º) is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich Oasis Time – GMT.
- Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand, is located on the Tropic of Cancer (23½º North Latitude). Apart from this, two other major cities, Gandhinagar, the capital of Gujarat and Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh, are located very close to the south of the Tropic of Cancer.
- Indira Point in Great Nicobar is also known as Pygmalion.
- Kanyakumari, the southernmost point of the Indian continent, is also called the ‘Cape of Comorin’.
- India’s northeastern state of Tripura is surrounded on three sides by Bangladesh.
- Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.
- The closest country to India across the sea is Sri Lanka, which is separated from the Indian landmass of Tamil Nadu by the Palk Strait. It connects the Bay of Bengal with the Gulf of Mannar. It is named after the then Governor of Madras Presidency, Robert Pak (1755-63).
हिंदी के लिए ➡️ RjNotes