plateau of peninsular india
- That part of the continent which is surrounded by oceans on three sides, such area of land is called peninsula.
- Peninsular India is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Arabian Sea in the west.
- Due to the plateau part of peninsular India, we call it the plateau of peninsular India.
- Peninsular India does not have high peaks like mountains, but there is a flat raised part of the rocks.
- The plateau of peninsular India is part of the Gondwana land.
- The plateau of peninsular India broke away from Africa and flowed towards the north-east, due to its flow in the north-east, due to pressure on the debris frozen in the Hythethys Sea, fold mountains were formed on the Himalayas.
- Peninsular India is still flowing north-east, due to which the height of the Himalayas is still increasing.
- The plateau of Peninsular India is tectonically stable, due to which earthquakes do not usually occur in Peninsular India.
- The movement inside the earth is called tectonics.
- The Aravalli Hills are situated at the north-western tip of peninsular India, and the Rajmahal hills are situated at its north-eastern tip.
- The plateau of peninsular India extends from the Aravalli Mountains in the north-west to the Rajmahal hills in the east to Kanyakumari in the south.
- The Shillong plateau in Meghalaya is also a north-eastern extension of the plateau of peninsular India. The Shillong plateau is an extension of the Rajmahal hills towards the east.
- The slope of the northern part of the plateau of peninsular India is towards the north, that is, towards the Ganga valley, that is why the Chambal, Betwa and Son rivers flow in the north-east direction and join the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.
(i) Chambal and Betwa rivers join Yamuna river near Etawah.
(ii) Son river joins Ganga river near Patna.
(iii) Yamuna river joins the Ganges at Allahabad (Prayagraj).
- South of the Satpura hill, the plateau of peninsular India slopes towards the east, which is why the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers flow towards the east and drain their water into the Bay of Bengal.
- In the north of the Satpura hill lies the fault valley of the Narmada river and in the south lies the fault valley of the Tapi river.
- Two faults are located on the western tip of the plateau of peninsular India, one fault lies to the north of the Satpura and the other to the south of the Satpura.
Note – The submerged concave region is called a fault.
- Narmada river flows in the northern fault of Satpura, hence it is called Narmada fault valley.
- Tapi/Tapti river flows south of Satpura, hence it is called ‘Tapi/Tapti fault valley’.
- The Narmada and Tapi fault valleys have a westward slope, which is why the Narmada and Tapi rivers flow in a westward direction against the general slope of peninsular India.
- The Narmada and Tapi rivers drain their water into the Gulf of Khambhat, that is, the Arabian Sea.
- The Western Ghats range from the mouth of the Tapi River to the Kardamam Hills of Kerala along the western coast, while the Eastern Ghats ranges along the eastern coast.
- The mountain ranges of Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats join together in South India, due to which a mountain knot is formed, this mountain knot is called Nilgiri Mountains.
- The Western Ghats extend to the south of the Nilgiri Mountains, the Western Ghats to the south of the Nilgiri Mountains are known as the Annamalai Hills and the Cardamam Hills.
- The southernmost hill of the plateau of Peninsular India is the Cardamom Hill or Cardamom Hill.
- The Nilgiri Mountains are spread over three states – Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
- On the north-western tip of the plateau of peninsular India is the extension of the Aravalli Mountains.
- The Aravalli ranges extend from Palanpur in Gujarat to the north-east near Delhi’s Majnootila. Its length is about 800 Km.
- The maximum length of the Aravalli mountain is in the state of Rajasthan.
- The southern part of the Aravalli Mountains is known as Jarga Hills.
- Aravalli mountain near Delhi is known as Delhi Ridge.
- The highest peak of the Aravalli mountain is Gurushikhar. It is located near Mount Abu in Rajasthan.
- The famous pilgrimage site of Jainism, Dilwara, is located in Mount Abu.
- Aravalli mountain is the oldest fold mountain in the world.
- The Banas River crosses the Aravallis from west to east and joins the Chambal River.
- The Malwa plateau is situated to the south of the Aravalli Mountains and to the north of the Vindhya Mountains, that is, the extension of the Malwa Plateau is between the Aravalli Mountains and the Vindhya Mountains.
- The slope of the Malwa plateau is towards the north, which is why the Chambal, Betwa and Kalisindh rivers flow in the north direction.
- The Malwa plateau is formed from the lava emanating from the volcano, due to which black soil is found on the Malwa plateau.
- The Chambal River, Betwa River and Kali Sindh River mainly originate from the Malwa plateau.
- The Chambal and its tributaries have eroded the Malwa plateau, due to which a ‘valley-like’ shape is found here.
- The Chambal and its tributaries have eroded the Malwa plateau and turned it into a gully, such erosion is called gully erosion, ravine erosion, or drain erosion.