Reasons and Characteristics of the Origin of Himalaya Mountains
- The Himalaya Mountains are the longest mountain range in the world, extending from east to west.
- Apart from the Himalaya mountain range, the expansion of other mountain ranges such as the Andes mountain range, the Rocky mountain range, the Great Dividing range and the Ural mountain range, all these mountain ranges are in the north to south direction.
- The length of the Himalayas is about 2500 km from east to west. The Himalayan ranges extend from Nanga Parbat in Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Namcha Barwal Parvat peak in the Tibet Plateau in the north of Arunachal Pradesh in the east.
- The width of the Himalayas is greater in the western part, while its width is less in the eastern part. Due to the narrow position of the Himalayas in the eastern part, it has risen high.
- The shape of the Himalayas is arc shaped or arched. The area of the Himalayas is about 5,00,000 sq. km. is |
- To the north of the Himalaya Mountains lies the Tibetan Plateau and to the north of the Tibet Plateau lies the Qunlun Mountains range.
- The Himalayas show a southward turn at its eastern end and western end.
- The southernmost bend at the western end of the Himalayas is called the Sulaiman Mountains in Pakistan and the Hindu Kush Mountains in Afghanistan.
- The southernmost bend at the eastern end of the Himalayas is known by different names in the states of Northeast India –
- Arunachal Pradesh – Patkai Bum
- Nagaland – Naga Hills
- Manipur – Manipur Hill
- Mizoram – Mizo Hills
- A branch of the Himalaya Mountains is spread in Myanmar, it is called Arakanyoma in Myanmar.
- Himalaya mountain is the world’s new fold mountain.
- The Himalaya Mountains were formed in the Cenozoic era.
- The best explanation of the origin of the Himalaya Mountains is the geo-convolution theory of Germany’s geologist Kober.
- Kober told in his theory that where the Himalayas are today, here the first Tethis land-consolidation was.
Note – Cobar has used the word ‘Bhu-sannati’ in place of the word ‘Sagar’.
- To the south of the Tethys land elevation was Gondwanaland and to the north of the Tethys land elevation was Angaraland.
- According to Kober, many rivers flowed in both Gondwanaland and Angaraland land. These rivers deposited sediments in the Tethys Sea over a long period of time, causing debris to accumulate in the Tethys landform.
- As the accumulation of debris increased, the pressure caused the Tethys to subduct into the ground, along with the accumulation of sedimentary debris. According to Kober, after some time due to the subsidence, there was a ‘shrinking’ in the Tethys ground, due to which its width started decreasing.
- Due to the shrinking of the Tethys landform, the sedimentary rocks deposited therein started to bend or fold. Cobar says that the turning action was more on both sides of the debris, as a result of which the middle part rose up in the form of a plane. The curve on one side is the Himalaya Mountains and the other side is the Qinlun Mountains and the middle part is the Tibetan Plateau.
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